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A vine killer aphid
In 1878, the vineyards of Burgundy were ravaged by a type of aphid, phylloxera vastatrix (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae). The insect, which originated in America, kills all the vines in its path. Only the grafting of French vines onto American vines that were resistant to the insect allowed the vines to grow again. It was not until 30 years later that all the vineyards were replanted, with many upheavals. Viticulture went from extensive to intensive, the vines were now planted in rows with gaps between the rows that allowed the horse and then the tractor to pass through, wire trellising was generalised, and yields were improved.
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