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Needles and soil
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The very dense needles of the common spruce (Picea abies) are arranged in a brush all around the stems. Rather rigid, quadrangular and with a rhomboidal section, they are inserted individually and regularly around the twigs on protruding woody pads. They live on the tree for four to ten years before falling and generating, by decomposing, an acidic humus which degrades the soils.
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