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Life expectancy and threats
The life expectancy of the howler monkey (Alouatta) is sixteen years in the wild and twenty-five years in captivity. The black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) is listed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) but other species are listed as Vulnerable or Critically Endangered. International trade in howler monkeys is prohibited by the Washington Convention (CITES) but subsistence hunting is permitted. These primates are also threatened by deforestation linked to soybean cultivation and cattle breeding which reduces their food resources, poaching for the illegal sale of young and natural predation by jaguars, pumas and Harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja).
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