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Improved performances since the 1980s
The performances of cross-country skiers have widely improved since the 1980s. Such evolution has been partly linked to the development and refinement of the techniques through research. Technical efficiency has been the subject of several studies, including analyses about the application of force to the poles and the biomechanics of the cycle motion. These works resulted in faster movements' speeds that transformed the discipline into a mix of speed, muscle power, and endurance.
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