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Climatic and soil conditions
The common spruce (Picea abies) is a robust and very cold-resistant but rather heliophilic species which does not develop well in too densely populated environments. Its late bud break (which marks the end of its dormancy) protects it from spring frosts. Its running rooting allows it to grow on shallow soils, preferably cool and acidic, but exposes it to windfall, especially in strong winds. It also adapts to calcareous and peaty soils, but its growth is slower there.
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