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Ecological amplitude
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In the mountains, altitude is decisive for the development of plants because it modifies the various factors (climate, soil, radiation) which act on their physiological functions. The optimum (i.e. the most favorable state) of each species is variable, which explains the zonation of the vegetation. However, while some species remain located within fairly narrow altitudinal limits, others - such as the common spruce (Picea abies) - have a greater amplitude on either side of their optimum. This faculty of ecological amplitude characterizes the possibility, for a species, of colonizing diversified environments (sunny and shaded stations, various altitudinal zones ...) and therefore of thriving.
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